Week Five Animal Farm Assignments

Animal Farm Assignments Week 5

  1. Do Take-Home Essay Test.   Choose TWO essays to answer.  Make sure you answer all the parts of the question and that each of your essays are at least ¾ page typed. 

  2. Read Communist Manifesto summary called, Fatal Flaw in Communism-summarizes Communist Manifesto and the article titled, “Judeo-Christian Values“.

  3. Read the hand-out that applied the Elements of Rhetoric to Old Major’s Speech then, put the Communist Manifesto on trial. Read the whole thing, but concentrate on your assigned section.  Question everything!  Highlight quotes and sections that you think represent Marx’s main ideas.  Try to identify some of his key beliefs/assumptions.  Keep a log of these assumptions, your questions, and your reactions.

  4. It will be up to you and your partner to report back to the rest of the class on your portion. Highlight and take some notes on the main points in your section. Feel free to call your partner to discuss your section.  This is not easy reading.  Hopefully my outline will be helpful, but reading Marx and Engel’s work will be tough.

     Intro and Section 1 p.1-11 

 Section 2  p. 12-21

Each Group has the following two tasks:

  1. Briefly summarize the main points of your group’s section and give a few examples from Animal Farm showing that Orwell’s depiction of Soviet Communism followed Marx’s philosophy and marching orders as described in the Communist Manifesto. Ie. How is your section like some things that happened in Animal Farm and/or Russia?
  2. Tell whether or not your group believes Lenin and Stalin’s form of communism was a ‘perversion’ of Marx’s original ‘dream’ or in fact the inevitable result of it. State a few reasons why you have reached this conclusion.

OPTIONAL ONLINE HELP UNDERSTANDING COMMUNIST MANIFESTO:

These two articles put it in perspective:

The Fatal Flaw in Communism” and the article titled, “Judeo Christian Values”

Go to:  http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/communist/summary.html to help you understand the main points of Marx’s Communist Manifesto.  You can read the Context section, Terms, and the summaries and commentaries for Sections 1 & 2, and then take their online quiz.

  • Looking ahead: Begin Finding Scripture pertaining to the topics below.  As applicable, place them on your Communist Plan & Call to Arms VS. Biblical Truth Chart.   

1) How Creation and Man came to be–The Origin of Man

2) The Nature of Man (“Bible, Economics and Capitalism” article will help.)

3) The Origin and Purpose of Work
4) The Origin of Marriage and Family

5)  The Origin of Law and Morality

(Name basic moral tenants given by God and where found in Scripture)

6) God’s analysis of the true nature of conflict (See James 4:1-12)

7) God’s solution to man’s sinfulness

8)  Where true happiness is found (scriptures on joy)

9) The Unshakable Hope that is found in Christ  (The real “Utopia”)

10) Scriptural Views of Private Property

11) Scriptural Instructions to the Rich and the Poor

  • Looking ahead: Start working on your Critical Analysis or Literary Analysis Paper for Animal Farm.  It will be due soon.

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Week Four Animal Farm Assignments

Animal Farm Assignments Week Due Fourth Class

Animal Farm Assignments Week 4

  1. Finish reading Animal Farm Ch. 7-10.  Take notes in your journal.
  2. Try to finish your Animal Farm Story Chart.  We will go through the PLOT part in class together, so don’t worry if you are stumped by some part.  I expect you to fill out the Setting, Conflict, etc. at home.  Do your best to find 3 themes.
  3. Electronic Story Chart
  4. Go back and re-read Old Major’s Speech in Chapter One and take notes at the end of your journal in a section called, “Irony”.  Note all the irony you can find between Old Major’s promises and what “Animalism” did to Animal Farm. (Next week you will apply these to Marx and Engels and the Communist Manifesto.
  5. Read 7 of the Extreme Devotion One  Extreme Devotions Two

Elements of Rhetoric applied to Old Major

Please Finish your Dialectical Journal Entries, as much of your Stalin, Napoleon, Trotsky and Snowball Character Trait Charts as you can and the last few questions in your Stalin Packet to show me.

ANIMAL FARM- Dialectical Journals

Keep a dialectical journal about the following characters in Animal Farm.  Find at least 6 quotes (1 for each character) that characterize them and explain what that reveals about how the animal fits into the Animal Farm society.  Include page numbers. Characters: Napoleon, Snowball, Mollie, Boxer, Clover, Squealer

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Biblical Context related to Animal Farm

Articles Used for Reflection Paper Assignments

Modern Socialism contrasted with the community of Acts

Biblical Worldview

Fatal Flaw in Communism-summarizes Communist Manifesto

Judeo-Christian Values

A Christian Manifesto by Francis Schaeffer

Anti-Religious Campaigns of Lenin and Stalin

Probe-Poverty and Wealth

Extreme Devotion One

Extreme Devotion Excerpts from The Voice of the Martyrs Extreme Devotion book.

Order from Amazon:

 

Does Acts 2-5 Teach Socialism?

 

 

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Animal Farm Week Three Assignments

Finish “Animal Farm Historical Connections Worksheet”.   This is kind of fun, because Animal Farm is written like a code to the reader.  You have to do some work to figure out what Orwell is really saying. (Due Third Class)

 

Do Stalin Packet below and turn in during Third Class of AF Unit.  (35 points)   You’ll need to Read World Leaders Past & Present : STALIN by Hoobler and Hoobler  Chapter One: Pages 16-29, Chapter Two: Pages 33-51, Chapter Three: Pages 52-End of Chapter.

Name:

Date:

 

World Leaders Past & Present : STALIN by Hoobler and Hoobler (35 points)

 

If you choose to type your answers and then save and print, you can type answers onto the Character Analysis Charts at the end.  Just use a small font.  If your quote won’t fit, put the page number, top, middle, or bottom, and beginning of quote in the box.

AF Character Charts

  1. p. 18-19 Stalin’s introduction to Marxism—Why was Stalin attracted to Marxism?

 

 

 

  1. Character Traits:

a.Give an example showing how Stalin showed himself to be vindictive. Fill in at least TWO traits and quotes on the Stalin character chart at end of this packet.  (We will work on this together in class, so please be ready to participate.)

 

 

 

 

  1. Print two pages from your World Leaders…Stalin PDF which clearly show something specific about Stalin’s character. High light those spots and bring to class. You can also use Stalin: Man of Steel biography pages.

 

  1. What was the Social Democratic Party in Russia? What did they want to do?

 

 

 

 

  1. How are the methods Stalin used to oppose the Mensheviks similar to Napoleon’s methods to oppose his enemies in Animal Farm?

 

 

  1. P. 22 How is Leon Trotsky described here?

Start filling in a character chart for Trotsky at end of packet –  Have at least Two Traits and Quotes filled in for Jan. 27th Class.

 

 

  1. Why did Stalin see Trotsky as a rival? (Another of Stalin’s traits?)

 

 

  1. P.26 & 29 What does “Stalin” mean in Russian?  How was this an appropriate name for Joseph Stalin to take? (Add it to your chart)

 

 

  1. P.34 How did Stalin use slogans to make the Bolsheviks appear moderate to the people?  How is this depicted in Animal Farm?  Give an example or two.

 

 

 

 

  1. P. 34 What skills did Trotsky possess? (also see Additional info. On Trotsky on last page of this handout- Add it to your chart.)

 

 

 

 

  1. P. 35 How did Stalin like to work?  How did one participant in the Bolshevik revolution describe Stalin?  Was Napoleon like this in the book?  (Add this to your Charts)

 

 

 

 

  1. P. 38-43 During the Russian Civil War between the Reds and the Whites, how did the Bolshevik Red’s wartime communism become as bad or worse than the Tsar’s ruling days?  Describe how the Bolshevik’s procured the supplies they needed?

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Is this similar to what Napoleon does to the animals after The Battle of Cowshed and at other times when his plans are set back? How does Orwell describe this in Animal Farm?

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. P. 50-51 What happened to Trotsky?  How is this portrayed in Animal Farm?

 

 

 

  1. Ch. 3 The Gods are Athirst P. 53-68

Describe some of the ways Stalin drives Russia toward Industrialization, Technological Advances and Collectivization using a series of Five Year Plans.  How are these symbolized or described in Animal Farm?  Give a specific example of each.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. P. 57-58 How many were killed during this “collectivization” process?

How is Stalin’s mockery of the plans to build a hydroelectric dam depicted in Animal Farm?  Why did Stalin’s views about the dam change?   Did Napoleon do this too?

 

 

 

  1. How did Stalin tighten his grip on the Russian people and the economy?

 

 

 

 

  1. What were workers praised for? How did Stalin encourage this?  Did Orwell capture this?

 

 

 

 

  1. How did Stalin curtail worker resistance to his hard demands to do more for less?

 

 

 

 

  1. 59 What fueled Stalin’s ambition? How did he use fear to keep people hanging on?

 

 

 

 

  1. Who were the “Wreckers”? How are they portrayed in Animal Farm?  What happens to them?

 

 

 

 

  1. P. 60-62 How did Stalin’s wife’s suicide affect him?  Was this portrayed in the book?

 

 

 

 

  1. P. 62 What personal characteristics of Stalin are described?  (Add this to character chart)

 

 

 

  1. Who carried out these arrests and forced confessions in Russia? (P. 64) Who carried these out in the book?

 

 

  1. Did Napoleon distance himself from the bloodshed in the book like Stalin did in real life? How did that help both maintain their power?

 

 

 

  1. How did Stalin’s propaganda campaign fool people outside of Russia? How did Orwell show this?

 

 

 

 

  1. What ways do you think Americans might be in danger of following someone or something blindly?

 

 

 

  1. P. 65-66 How did Bukharin sum up Stalin’s motives?  What does the Bible call these sins?

 

 

 

  1. What is God’s solution to this sickness of heart?

 

 

 

  1. P. 65 cont. What happened to Bukarin for making these remarks?

 

 

 

  1. Although Napoleon doesn’t die in Animal Farm, how are the reactions of the animals to what has happened on the farm somewhat similar to how the Russian people reacted to Stalin’s death/legacy?

 

 

 

 

 

  1. George Orwell did not just write this book to expose Stalin’s evil regime and the failure of the utopian communist ideal. He wrote it for a broader purpose. What do you think that broader purpose is?

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What is your personal take-away from this study?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Additional Info. About Trotsky from www.history.com

Exile.

Trotsky was second only to Lenin in the Politburo, and Lenin viewed him as exceptionally able. He backed Lenin’s major policy innovations, but had his own plans for industrializing Russia. When a stroke removed Lenin from active politics in May 1922, Trotsky was not in a position to take over. Never adept at party politics, he failed to outmaneuver the troika of Grigory Zinovyev (1883–1936), Lev Kamenev (1883–1936), and Stalin that took power. Although he put himself at the head of a loosely knit left opposition, Trotsky’s polemic salvos were no match for Stalin’s bureaucratic party machine. In 1925 his adversaries removed him from the Commissariat of War; in 1926 they expelled him from the Politburo; and in 1928 Stalin exiled him to Central Asia and in 1929 expelled him from the USSR.

Trotsky spent the rest of his life seeking a safe place to compose his savage critiques of Stalinist Russia. In Turkey, France, Norway, and finally Mexico he produced many publications, including an autobiography, My Life (1930; trans. 1930); an unmatched History of the Russian Revolution (3 vol., 1931–33; trans. 1932–33); an insightful The Revolution Betrayed (1937); and searing articles on the major issues of his day (Stalinism, Nazism, fascism, the Spanish civil war). A Stalinist agent fatally wounded him on Aug. 20, 1940, in Coyoacán, Mexico. He died the following day.

Evaluation.

Trotsky’s brilliant polemical and oratorical talents were perfectly suited to a period of revolution, and his energies helped to create and, above all, to save the Soviet Union during the civil war. Lacking the skills of a political infighter, however, he lost out to Stalin. Soviet scholars still held to the Stalinist line that Trotsky was a traitor, who attempted to undermine the Soviet Union.        J.E.Sa., JONATHAN E. SANDERS, M.A., Ph.D.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Week One & Week Two Assignments

Week One and Week Two Animal Farm Assignments – 

Week One:

Start a World Lit Journal. I suggest something spiral bound or a binder with sections, but it needs to be something that you can easily take notes into while reading.

  • Your first section will be for Literary Terms. Write definitions for the following literary terms in this section of your journal:  allegory, fable, satire, motif, irony, symbolism

Copy the following definition into your journal:

Roman à clef (French pronunciation: [ʁɔmɑ̃ a kle], Anglicized as /roʊˌmɒnəˈkleɪ/), French for novel with a key, is a novel about real life, overlaid with a façade of fiction. The fictitious names in the novel represent real people, and the “key” is the relationship between the nonfiction and the fiction.Jul 13, 2016

What is a Roman à Clef? | Michael Bunker

www.michaelbunker.com/what-is-a-roman-a-clef/

 

Keep these terms in mind while reading Animal Farm

  •  Section 2 of your journal will be for your notes on Animal Farm. I have ordered your book already and will get it to you when it comes in.

Before beginning Animal Farm, please see Animal Farm Historical Context page and read recommended resources.  The historical context is the “key” to this Roman a clef—this allegory.

  1. When you get your book, read the preface. You do not have to read the Introduction section.
  2. I am not giving you reading questions this time, but I will be checking your journal weekly, so take notes as you read. Break your notes up by chapter. Leave room at the end of each chapter for things you learn in class that go with each chapter.  I find using sticky notes with page #’s and brief reference note helpful.  But if you use this method, be sure to go back and jot your notes in your journal. *Be sure to record significant quotes and page numbers, especially as they relate to various characters.

 

Week One Journal Notes for Ch. 1-3 Due First Class (about 33 pages to read)

Week Two Journal Notes for Ch. 4-6 Due Second Class  (about 34 pages to read)

 

Think about why Orwell may have chosen the animals he did to characterize the different players in the Russian Revolution and Communist movement.  Ask a lot of questions as you read and jot your questions down and highlight them so we can discuss them in class.

  1. Character Symbolism – See Animal Farm Historical Background Online Resources for help.
  2. Due Week Three: Complete as much of the “Animal Farm Historical Connections Worksheet” as you can.  This is kind of fun, because Animal Farm is written like a code to the reader.  You have to do some work to figure out what Orwell is really saying.
  3. Make a section in your journal titled, “Spiritual Insights relating to Animal Farm
  4.  Begin finding Scriptures that relate to concepts in the book. (Topics could include what the Bible says about the value of work, why it is wrong to steal, lie, cheat, murder, about leadership, about government, about how to treat other people, about standing for what is right, trusting in God rather than government etc.)  Pray, look up verses that come to mind or words in a concordance that relate.  Write references and the gist of the verse.  If you need ideas, talk with your parents or e-mail me.  (At least 4 references by Week One Class)
  5. Read the account of the Tower of Babel in Genesis 11:1-9.  Think about the question:  Are there parallels between the pursuit of communism and what happened at the Tower of Babel?  Write your thoughts down.  Place this in your spiritual insights section.  (Due in Second Class)
  6. Due Week One Write this verse down and memorize it.  Psalm 118:9  “It is better to take refuge in the Lord than to trust in man.
  7. Due Week Three: If you have time, begin the Stalin by Hoobler and Stalin: Man of Steel and start Stalin Packet.

 

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Animal Farm Historical Background

Animal Farm Historical Connections Worksheet link:

teachers.sduhsd.net/joehler/Assignments/Historical%20Connections%20Worksheet.doc

Recommended Books to help students fill out       Animal Farm Historical Connections Worksheet

— Try your local library or inter-library loan.

Title: Russia in Revolution by E.M. Halliday

  • Publisher: Littlehampton Book Services Ltd (October 1968)
  • ISBN-10: 0304932183
  • ISBN-13: 978-0304932184

Read Chapters 6, 7 & 8 and Timeline in back of book

Title: The Collapse of the Soviet Union: The End of an Empire (Snapshots in History)  by Andrew Langley (Author)

  • Publisher: Compass Point Books (September 1, 2006)
  • ISBN-10: 0756520096
  • ISBN-13: 978-0756520090

Read pages 18-27

Joseph Stalin (World Leaders Past and Present) Library Binding – 1987

ONLINE MATERIALS:

Download Animal Farm Historical Background Summary at link below:

http://rockets.schoolwires.net/cms/lib2/PA01001732/Centricity/Domain/495/summerassignmenthonors10.doc

ANIMAL FARM- Dialectical Journals Assignment Explained at link above.

“Keep a dialectical journal about the following characters in Animal Farm.  Find at least 6 quotes (1 for each character) that characterize them and explain what that reveals about how the animal fits into the Animal Farm society.  Include page numbers. Characters: Napoleon, Snowball, Mollie, Boxer, Clover, Squealer.”

Cornell Animal Farm Allegory Notes:

Slide Show of Historical Parallels in Animal Farm

Animal Farm Historical Connections Worksheet link:

teachers.sduhsd.net/joehler/Assignments/Historical%20Connections%20Worksheet.doc

 

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Captains Courageous Biblical Family Reflection Paper Due September 16th

Biblical Family One Page Reflection Paper

Due September 16th –10 Points

Describe the Biblical Model for Marriage, Family, Parenting & Discipline (Focus on at least two of these.)

Write a one page paper describing how your family follows God’s plan for family.  Ask your parents what scriptures and scriptural principals have especially shaped their marriage, parenting and/or family choices and include these in your reflection.  Share how your parent’s choices have blessed your life.  How do the parenting models found in Captains Courageous compare to the Biblical Model?  What does the Bible say about spanking?  How does that differ from Disko’s form of discipline when Harvey was being ridiculously proud and Disko thought he needed to literally knock some sense into him?  Was Disko’s heart in the right place even if his methods weren’t?  Has discipline you’ve received humbled you or brought sense to you so you could repent?

This paper is due next week, but as you continue reading Captains Courageous see if Disko’s parenting style does align with the model of your family or the instructions found in scripture.  If you write another one page reflection paper on this at the end of this book analysis, you will receive 5 points extra credit.

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Biblical View of Masons or Spiritism Assignment – Due Sept. 23rd

Captains Courageous Biblical View of Mason’s Or Spiritism One Page Paper

Due Sept. 23rd –10 Points

In Chapters 5-8, there are references to Masons (the Masonic Temple), and allusions to witchcraft when the cook leads the boys in a superstitious ceremony and idolatrous practices to make the dead Frenchmen’s spirit leave the boys alone. (The Cook’s other name is Doc—likely an allusion to witch doctor-like practices and a supposed gift of clairvoyance.)

Write a half-page paper describing EITHER why Masonry is not compatible with Christianity based on the testimonies of an ex-Mason OR what Scripture has to say about necromancy (communicating with the dead), witchcraft, mediums, idolatry and spiritism.  (You should be able to find these words in a concordance or Bible software program with a concordance.)

Ex Masons For Jesus Testimonies:

http://www.emfj.org/hilton.htm

More Ex Mason Testimonies:

http://www.emfj.org/testimon.htm

More Free Masonry Info from Biblical Perspective:

http://www.emfj.org/

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Parts of Schooner — Sailing Terms


small schooner

er.jpg‎ (370 × 310 pixels, file size: 19 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

10 Beginner Sailing Terms Everyone Should Know

from: http://www.discoverboating.com/resources/article.aspx?id=243

While our glossary page provides a comprehensive list of, we’ve also compiled this short list of 10 beginner sailing terms that everyone should know. If you’re just learning how to sail, these handy terms can provide a helpful overview of sailing basics you need to become familiar with.

  1. Aft – The back of a ship. If something is located aft, it is at the back of the sailboat. The aft is also known as the stern.2. Bow – The front of the ship is called the bow. Knowing the location of the bow is important for defining two of the other most common sailing terms: port (left of the bow) and starboard (right of the bow).

    3. Port – Port is always the left-hand side of the boat when you are facing the bow. Because “right” and “left” can become confusing sailing terms when used out in the open waters, port is used to define the left-hand side of the boat as it relates to the bow, or front.

    4. Starboard – Starboard is always the right-hand side of the boat when you are facing the bow. Because “right” and “left” can become confusing sailing terms when used out in the open waters, starboard is used to define the right-hand side of the boat as it relates to the bow, or front.
    5. Leeward – Also known as lee, leeward is the direction opposite to the way the wind is currently blowing (windward).

    6. Windward – The direction in which the wind is currently blowing. Windward is the opposite of leeward (the opposite direction of the wind). Sailboats tend to move with the wind, making the windward direction an important sailing term to know.

Schooner rigging:
1) Bowsprit 2) Jib, followed by fore staysail 3) (Fore) gaff topsail 4) Foresail 5) Main gaff topsail 6) Mainsail 7) End of boom

  1. Boom – The boom is the horizontal pole which extends from the bottom of the mast. Adjusting the boom towards the direction of the wind is how the sailboat is able to harness wind power in order to move forward or backwards.8. Rudder – Located beneath the boat, the rudder is a flat piece of wood, fiberglass, or metal that is used to steer the ship. Larger sailboats control the rudder via a wheel, while smaller sailboats will have a steering mechanism directly aft.

    9. Tacking – The opposite of jibing, this basic sailing maneuver refers to turning the bow of the boat through the wind so that the wind changes from one side of the boat to the other side. The boon of a boat will always shift from one side to the other when performing a tack or a jibe.

    10. Jibing – The opposite of tacking, this basic sailing maneuver refers to turning the stern of the boat through the wind so that the wind changes from one side of the boat to the other side. The boon of a boat will always shift from one side to the other when performing a tack or a jibe. Jibing is a less common technique than tacking, since it involves turning a boat directly into the wind.

Basic Descriptions of Boat Components for Sailors Aug 2, 2007 Alan Sorum

used to be found at: http://boatingsailing.suite101.com/article.cfm/anatomy_of_a_simple_sailboat

The anatomy of a sailboat can be broken into three broad areas. These sections can be used help describe the parts of the sail, rigging, and hull. These are for a basic sailboat and you’ll see more complex examples of yachts in the marina. Parts are labeled in the accompanying illustrations.

Image result for Parts of the Sail on schooner

Parts of a Sail – A sail is a large piece of strong fabric that catches the wind and provides propulsion for a sailboat. Many sailboats use more than one sail.

  • Head – Topmost corner of a triangular shaped sail
  • Mainsail – Normally the largest sail providing driving force for the sailboat
  • Headsail – A sail set forward of a mast
  • Jib – A triangular shaped headsail
  • Leech – The aft or trailing edge of a sail
  • Luff – The forward edge of a sail
  • Tack – The lower corner of the forward edge of a sail
  • Clew – The lower corner of the aft edge of a sail
  • Foot – The lowest edge of a sail

Parts of the Sail

Image result for Parts of the rigging on schooner

Parts of the Rigging – A sailboat’s rigging takes in all the components that support the mast and sails. Rigging varies greatly between different styles of boats.

  • Mast – The main upright structural member of the sailboat that supports the sails
  • Boom – The horizontal structural member attached to the foot of the mainsail
  • Spreader – A bar that holds the shroud out away from the mast
  • Standing Rigging – Wire ropes that support the mast. They include:
    • Stay – A wire rope that runs from the top of the mast to locations fore and aft on the hull
    • Shroud – A wire rope that adds additional lateral support to the mast
  • Running Rigging – Generically all the lines used to raise, lower or control the sails
    • Halyard – A line that raises or lowers the sail
    • Sheet – A line that controls a sail

Image result for Parts of schooner hull
Bow
– The forward part of the sailboatParts of the Hull – The body or fuselage of a sailboat is the hull. Hulls provide buoyancy required to carry cargo and a platform for mounting the sails.

  • Centerboard or Keel – A structure that extends down into the water that improves stability, maneuverability and limits lateral movement in the water. Smaller vessels use a dagger or centerboard that is removable. Larger boats have a fixed keel that is often filled with ballast
  • Stern – The back or aft part of the sailboat
  • Rudder – A movable vertical plane at the stern of the sailboat that is used to steer a sailboat
  • Tiller – On smaller sailboats, the rudder is controlled manually with a lever at the stern of the boat. Larger vessels depend on mechanical steering systems
  • Transom – A flat surface at the aft end of a sailboat

 

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Kipling’s Imperialism – Excerpt from biography.yourdictionary.com

His Imperialism

In 1897 the Kiplings settled in Rottingdean, a village on the British coast near Brighton. The outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898 and the Boer War in 1899 turned Kipling’s attention to colonial affairs. He began to publish a number of solemn poems in standard English in the London Times. The most famous of these, “Recessional” (July 17, 1897), issued a warning to Englishmen to consider their accomplishments in the Diamond Jubilee year of Queen Victoria’s reign with humility and awe rather than pride and arrogance. The equally well-known “White Man’s Burden” (Feb. 4, 1899) clearly expressed the attitudes toward empire implicit in the stories in The Day’s Work (1898) and A Fleet in Being (1898). He referred to less highly developed peoples as “lesser breeds” and considered order, discipline, sacrifice, and humility to be the essential qualities of colonial rulers. These views have been denounced as racist, elitist, and jingoistic. But for Kipling, the term “white man” indicated citizens of the more highly developed nations, whose duty it was to spread law, literacy, and morality throughout the world.

During the Boer War, Kipling spent several months in South Africa, where he raised funds for soldiers’ relief and worked on an army newspaper, the Friend. In 1901 Kipling published Kim, the last and most charming of his portrayals of Indian life. But anti-imperialist reaction following the end of the Boer War caused a decline in Kipling’s popularity. When he published The Five Nations, a book of South African verse, in 1903, he was attacked in parodies, caricatures, and serious protests as the opponent of a growing spirit of peace and democratic equality. Kipling retired to “Bateman’s,” a house near Burwash, a secluded village in Essex
Read more at http://biography.yourdictionary.com/rudyard-kipling#mWHlvrKiHfL2zOzv.99

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